Theodore Graptos

   He and his brother Theophanes Graptos (q.v.) were champions of icons (q.v.) during Theophilos's (q.v.) revival of Iconoclasm (q.v.). They were from Palestine (q.v.) and were pupils of Michael Synkellos (q.v.), whose vita (q.v.) is the chief source of information about them. Theodore and Theophanes were each called graptos, meaning "branded," because the emperor Theophilos, in the most dramatic instance of persecution during his reign, punished them by tattooing 12 iambic pentameters on their foreheads. The verses advertised the emperor's view that they were evil vessels of superstition and lawlessness, since they venerated icons in violation of imperial law.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Theophanes Graptos —    He and his brother Theodore Graptos (q.v.) were the chief opponents of Iconoclasm (q.v.) during the reign of Theophilos (q.v.). They were each branded (graptos) on their foreheads for supporting the veneration of icons (q.v.). After Theophilos …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Leo V the Armenian —    Emperor (q.v.) (813 820) of Armenian descent who inaugurated the second period of Iconoclasm (q.v.) in 815. John (VII) Grammatikos (q.v.) laid the groundwork for a local council in Constantinople (q.v.) that reinstated Iconoclasm in 815,… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • kanōn — ▪ Eastern Orthodoxy       (Greek: “canon”), one of the main forms of Byzantine liturgical office; it consists of nine odes, based on the nine biblical canticles of the Eastern (Eastern Orthodoxy) Christian Church. (Compare canonical hours.) The… …   Universalium

  • Iconoclasm —    Greek for the breaking of images, referring to any attempt to destroy religious images (icons [q.v.]), and referring more specifically to the attempt by certain eighth and ninth century emperors (q.v.) to cleanse Byzantium (q.v.) of what they… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Michael Synkellos —    Writer (died 846) of hagiography, hymns (qq.v.), homilies, and a treatise on grammar. He was synkellos (q.v.) of the patriarch of Jerusalem (qq.v.) and while in Constantinople (q.v.) he was imprisoned by Leo V (q.v.) for being an Iconodule… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Theophilos —    Emperor (q.v.) from 829 842 who revived Iconoclasm (q.v.) for the last time, perhaps due to the influence of John VII Grammatikos (q.v.). Yet despite making examples of prominent Iconodules (q.v.) like Theodore and Theophanes Graptos and the… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

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